Document Type : Original Article


Islamic Azad University of Hashtgerd, Alborz , Iran


Inertial navigation amplifies the noise of the input sensors over time due to the presence of an integrator in the output path to determine the position and attitude of the object. This system has high bandwidth and good short-term accuracy. On the other hand, GPS navigation has low bandwidth, low noise processing power, and long-term accuracy. However, it can only determine the position and does not give us information about the object's attitude. Most papers have presented integrated algorithms related to GPS/INS tightly coupled navigation and have provided relatively acceptable results. Nevertheless, the main problem in this integration model is when there is an intentional or stochastical signal interference for GPS, which is not far from the mind in military applications. Therefore, navigation faces a problem. This article provides a solution with a tightly coupled integrated algorithm for high accuracy in integrated navigation.


Main Subjects

[1] Chiang, K. W., H. Hou, X. Niu and N. El-Sheimy, "Improving the Positioning Accuracy of DGPS/MEMS IMU Integrated Systems Utilizing Cascade De-noising Algorithm", in Proceedings of ION GPS, pp. 809-818, U. S. Institute of Navigation, 2004.
[2] Cao, F.X., Yang, D.K., Xu, A.G., \ Low Cost SINS/GPS Integration for Land Vehicle Navigation," IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transport Systems, Singapore, 2002.
 [3] Panzieri, S., Pascucci, F., Ulivi, G., "An Outdoor navigation system using GPS and Inertial Platform," IEEE ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 7, No.2, 2002.
 [4] Noureldin, A., Karamat, T., & Georgy, J. "Faundamentals of Inertial Navigation, Satellite-based Positioning and their Integration", Springer-Verlag, 2012;
[5] Angrisano, A., Petovello, M.G. and Pugliano G., "GNSS/INS Integration in Vehicular Urban Navigation", Proceedings of GNSS10 (Portland, OR, 21-24 Sep), The Institute of Navigation,2010.
[6] El-Sheimy,  N., "Inertial techniques and INS/DGPS Integration, ENGO 623-Course Notes", Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Canada, 2004.
 [7] El-Sheimy, N., K. P. Schwarz, M. Wei, and M. Lavigne , "VISAT: A Mobile City Survey System of High Accuracy", Proceedings of ION GPS , pp. 1307–1315. Institute Of Navigation,1995;
[8] Godha, S. , "Performance Evaluation of Low Cost MEMS-Based IMU Integrated With GPS for Land Vehicle Navigation Application", MSc Thesis, Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Canada, UCGE Report No. 20239. 164, 2006.
[9] Godha, S., Lachapelle, G. and Cannon, M.E. , "Integrated GPS/INS System for Pedestrian Navigation in a Signal Degraded Environment", Proceedings of ION GNSS06, 26-29 Sept., Fort Worth, Session A5, pp. 2151 – 2164, The Institute of Navigation, 2006.
[10]Nassar, S., "Improving the Inertial Navigation System (INS) Error Model for INS and INS/DGPS Applications", PhD Thesis, Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Canada, UCGE Report No. 20183, 2003.
[11] Chang L., Li K., Hu B.,"Huber's M-Estimation Based Process Uncertainty Robust Filter for Integrated INS/GPS", IEEE Sensor Journal, Vol. 15, No. 6, 2015.
[12] Gao, P., Li, K., Song, T., and Liu, Z., “An Accelerometers SizeEffect Self Calibration Method for Triaxis Rotational Inertial Navigation System”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 65, No. 2, pp.1655-1664, 2018.
 [13] Sun, Y., Yang, G., Cai, Q., and Wang, S., “An Online Calibration Method of SINS/Odometer Integrated Navigation System”, 4th International Conference on Information Science and Control Engineering (ICISCE), 2017.
 [14] Kim, Y., An, J., and Lee ,J., “Robust Navigational System for a Transporter Using GPS/INS Fusion”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol.65, No.4, pp.3346-3354, 2018.
 [15] Zhong M., Guo J., and Zhou D., “Adaptive in- Flight Alignment of INS/GPS Systems for Aerial Mapping”, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol.99, pp.1-12, 2017.
[16] Li K., Zhao J., Wang X., Wang L.,"Federated Ultra-Tightly Coupled GPS/INS Integrated Navigation System Based on Vector Tracking for Severe Jamming Environment", IET Radar, Sonar and Navigation Journal, Vol. 10, No. 6, 2016.
[17] Chang, L., Hu, B., Li, A., Qin, F., "Strapdown Inertial Navigation System Alignment Based on Marginalised Unscented Kalman Filter", IET Journal ofScience, Measurement and Technology, Vol. 7. No. 2, pp. 128-138, 2013.
[18] Chang, L., Zha, F., and Qin, F., “Indirect Kalman Filtering Based Attitude Estimation for Low-Cost Attitude and Heading Reference Systems”, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol.22, No.4, pp.850-1858, 2017.
 [19] Salamat, B., and Tonello, A.M., “Altitude and Attitude Tracking of a Quadrotor Helicopter UAV using a Novel Evolutionary Feedback Controller”, International Conference on Smart Systems and Technologies (SST), 2017.
[20] Petovello, M., "Real-time Integration of a Tactical-Grade IMU and GPS for High-Accuracy Positioning and Navigation", PhD Thesis, Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Canada, UCGE Report No. 20173, 2003.
[21]Petovello, M., "Estimation for Navigation", ENGO 699.18 - Lecture Notes, Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Canada, 2009.
[22] Shin, E., "Accuracy Improvement of Low Cost INS/GPS for Land Application", MSc Thesis, Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Canada, UCGE Report No. 20156, 2001.
[23]Shin, E., "Estimation Techniques for Low-Cost Inertial Navigation", PhD Thesis, Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Canada, UCGE Report No. 20219, 2005.
 [24] Klein I., Filin S. and Toledo T., "Pseudo-measurements as aiding to INS during GPS outages", Navigation 57(1), pp. 25-34, 2010
[25] F M, K Saadeddin and M A Jarrah, "Constrained low-cost GPS/INS filter with encoder bias estimation for ground vehicles' applications [J]", Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 58, pp. 285-297, 2015.
[26] H Zhao, Z Xiong, L Shi et al., "A robust filtering algorithm for integrated navigation system of aerospace vehicle in launch inertial coordinate[J]", Aerospace Science and Technology, vol. 58, pp. 629-640, 2016.
[27] G Chang and M. Liu, "Hybrid Kalman and unscented Kalman filters for INS/GPS integrated system considering constant lever arm effect[J]", Journal of Central South University, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 575-583, 2015.
[28] S Häfner and R Thomä, "Extended Kalman Filtering and Maximum-Likelihood Estimation for Point Target Localisation[C]", 2020 German Microwave Conference. IEEE, pp. 116-119, 2020.
[29] R. Wang, X. Hou, F. Liu and Y. Yu, "GPS/INS Integrated Navigation for Quadrotor UAV Considering Lever Arm," 2020 35th Youth Academic Annual Conference of Chinese Association of Automation (YAC), 2020, pp. 132-136.
[30] C. Jiayao, Z. Dalong, H. Gangtao and L. Zhiyuan, "A Method for Lever Arm Estimation in INS/GPS Integration Using Direct Unscented Kalman Filter," 2020 IEEE 6th International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC), 2020, pp. 985-990.