Publication Ethics

All submitted articles are evaluated at the submission stage to meet the structural and subject principles of each journal. The matched articles will be gone under a double-blinded peer-review process by at least 3 reviewers (expert in the field who are not part of the journal's editorial staff) who are selected by the Editorial Board members according to their field specialties. The Editorial Board members have the final responsibility to select the articles.

- A peer-reviewed journal is one that regularly obtains advice on individual manuscripts from reviewers who are not part of the journal's editorial staff.

- Peer review is intended to improve the accuracy, clarity, and completeness of published manuscripts and to help editors decide which manuscripts to publish.

 - Peer review does not guarantee manuscript quality and does not reliably detect scientific misconduct.

- Peer review manipulation, also referred to as fraudulent peer review, can be defined as subversion of the peer review process, in which, an author or another person engaged on behalf of the author deceives a journal editor into sending a peer review invitation, such that the authors or a third party related to them can determine or control the contents of the review.

- Peer reviewers should be experts in the manuscript's content area, research methods, or both; a critique of writing style alone is not sufficient.

- Peer reviewers should be selected based on their expertise and ability to provide high quality, constructive, and fair reviews.

- For research manuscripts, editors may, in addition, seek the opinion of a statistical reviewer.

- Peer reviewers advise editors on how a manuscript might be improved and on its priority in that journal.

- Editors decide whether and under which conditions manuscripts are accepted for publication, assisted by reviewers' advice .

- Peer reviewers are sometimes paid for their efforts but usually provide their opinions free of charge, as a service to their profession.

- Editors should require all peer reviewers to disclose any conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise, related to a  particular manuscript and should take this information into account when deciding how to use  their review. Generally speaking, people with a direct financial interest in the results of the manuscripts should not be reviewers.

- To be considered peer  reviewed, a journal should have obtained external reviews for the majority of manuscripts it publishes, including all original research and review articles. Some editors request review for other kinds of articles, such as opinion pieces (commentaries/editorials) and correspondence. To have been peer reviewed, a manuscript should have been reviewed by at least one external reviewer; it is typical and sometimes more opinions are sought.

- Editors of peer-reviewed journals need not send all submitted manuscripts out for review. Manuscripts that seem unlikely to be published in that journal may be returned to authors without external review, to allow authors to submit the manuscript to another journal without delay and to make efficient use of reviewers' and editors' time.

- Editors should state their journal's peer review policies, including which kinds of article are peer reviewed and by how many reviewers, in the instructions for authors.

- Statistics describing the journal's review process, such as number of manuscripts submitted, acceptance rate, and times from manuscript submission to rejection letter to authors and, for accepted manuscripts, time to publication will be issued upon request of concerned authorities.

- Editors should avoid using author-recommended peer reviewers to review a paper.

- Editors should not use an author-recommended reviewer unless the person's contact information is obtained from an independently validated source, e.g., from the reviewer's publications or referred by a member of the Journal's editorial board. Note that email addresses with top level domains such as.  edu are more likely to be reliably linked to the correct individual than those with other less tightly controlled domains (e.g., Gamil or yahoo accounts). However, editors should not require reviewers to use their . edu or other professional email addresses because some institutions may not have reliable email access, particularly in low or middle income countries, and their faculty may prefer to use non-institutional email addresses. [In these limited cases, Editors may want to encourage potential reviewers to include the non-institutional email address institutional Web page]. Editors should consider applying similar diligence to reviewer suggested reviewer names and emails.

- If the editor determines that an author has supplied a reviewer email address that is not correct, then the editor should ask the author for an explanation.  Merely supplying an incorrect email address (e.g., with a typo or an outdated email address) does not imply a deliberate intent to deceive or manipulate. If the email address appears to have been submitted with intent to deceive the editor as to the address's then the editor should take additional steps depending on the source of the deception, such as contacting the author's institution.

- Editors should make every effort to find expert reviewers in the topics(s) addressed in the manuscript who are free of significant conflicts of interest. These efforts include the editors' own expertise, and use of electronic, own expertise, and use of electronic databases, manuscript reference lists, editorial board recommendations, journal database searches, and the like. For highly specialized areas, chairs of departments and the like may have suggestions as to with expertise.

- To avoid inviting peer reviewers with significant conflicts of interest, editors generally should exclude from consideration: (a) individuals who have coauthored manuscripts with the authors in the recent (e.g., 10 years) past, (b) individuals who work at the same institution as the authors, particularly if they are in the same area as an author or the institution is small, and (c) individuals who have other conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise, for or against the paper. If editors make exceptions to these general principles when inviting reviewers, they should deep in mind the exception and its potential implications for the reviewer's recommendations.

- Potential reviewers should be asked to recuse themselves prior to accepting a peer review invitation if they have a conflicts of interest for or against the manuscript or if they are otherwise unable to review the manuscript objectively. Reviewers who agree to review and then discover a potential conflict should contact the editor.

- Every peer-reviewed journal should have its own conflicts of Interest policies for authors, reviewers, and editors that are publicly available and these should be provided to potential reviewers.

- Journal peer review systems should include a step asking the reviewers to report their potential conflicts of interest, requesting explanation and preventing review without editor intervention if reviewers answer in the affirmative.